Malaria is caused by a parasite known as plasmodium. This parasite spread to the human through the bite of female Anopheles Mosquitoes.There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans.
Symptoms Of Malaria
Malaria is an acute fever illness.Symptoms appears after 7 days bite of mosquito and usually 10-15 days.
Children with acute pneumonia may develop following symptoms:
- Respiratory Distress
- Cerebral Malaria
Transmission Of Malaria
Female Anopheles mosquito feeds on human blood to obtain protein they needs to develop their eggs.If the person they bite is infected with plasmodium ,they will take some male gametes with the meal.Here male and female gamete fuses and develop to form infective stage, which moves to the mosquitos salivary gland.When the mosquito feeds again it injects anticouglant to prevent the blood meal from clotting. These infective stages pass from the mosquito’s salivary glands to the human blood with the anticouglant in the saliva. These parasites enter the red blood cells where they multiply.Anopheles Mosquito is therefore known as malaria vector.
Preventing The Malaria
Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. WHO recommends protection for all people on risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control.
Two ways of vector control:
- Insecticides-treated mosquito nets
- Indoor residual spraying.
Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria.Malaria can be prevented for travellers by the use of chemoprophylaxis, which supresses the blood stage of malaria.
Malaria can be treated by early diagnosis and prevents death.It contributes to reduce malaria transmission.
The best treatment available for falciparum malaria is artemisinin-based combination therapy(ACT).
As soon as malaria confirmed treatment should started.Anti-Malarial medication is available to treat and prevent malaria.Malaria is a serious illness and should treated soon rather it can be fatal.Up till now there is no vaccine against malaria or any other parasite.